Excellence in writing is critical for success in many academic and professional pursuits. APA Style is a set of guidelines for clear and precise scholarly communication that helps authors, both new and experienced, achieve excellence in writing. It is used by millions of people around the world in psychology and also in fields ranging from nursing to social work, communication to education, business to engineering, and other disciplines for the preparation of manuscripts for publication as well as for writing student papers, dissertations, and theses. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the authoritative resource for APA Style (p. xvii, Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association).
Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
(Source: OWL Purdue website)
|GROUP OR CORPORATE AUTHOR||
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.
Anbar, A. (2004). The secret of natural readers: How preschool children learn to read. Praeger.
Babcock, B. A., & Parezo, N. J. (1988). Daughters of the desert: Women anthropologists and the native american southwest, 1880-1980. University of New Mexico Press.
|3 TO 20 AUTHORS||
Hall, M.M., Worsham, R.E., & Reavis, G. (2021). The effects of offering proactive student success coaching on community college students' academic performance and persistence. Community College Review, 49(2), 202-237.
|MORE THAN 20 AUTHORS||
If a source is more than twenty authors, after the nineteenth author's name place an ellipses (...) for the remaining authors, then end with the final authors name. Contact a librarian if you need more assistance.
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Merriam-Webster.
Dinsmoor, R.S. (2011). Thallium heart scan. In L.J. Funukian (Ed.), The gale encyclopedia of medicine (4th ed., pp. 4297-4298). Gale.
|CHAPTER IN AN EDITED BOOK||
Huff, R. (2006). The generic framework for diabetes in pregnancy. In O. Langer (Ed.), The diabetes in pregnancy dilemma: Leading change with proven solutions (pp. 296-303). University Press of America.
Starks, P. B., & Slabach, B. L. (2012, June). The scoop on eating dirt. Scientific American, 306(6), 30-32.
Strauss, G. P., & Gold, J. M. (2012). A new perspective on anhedonia in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 364-373.
Wigglesworth, A. (2021, September). Forest clearing projects helped save Lake Tahoe. Los Angeles Times, B1, B2.
When To Include DOI's and URL's
The DOI or URL is the final component of the reference list entry. Because so much scholarship is available and/or retrieved online, most reference list entries end with either a DOI or a URL. A DOI, or digital object finder, is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provides a persistent link to its location on the internet. A URL, or uniform resource locator, specifies the location of digital information on the internet and can be found in the address bar of your internet browser.
Follow these guidelines for including DOI’s and URL’s in references:
Format of DOI’s and URL’s
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy
(Source: APA Style)
In Text Citations: The Basics
APA Style uses the author–date citation system, in which a brief in-text citation directs readers to a full reference list entry. The in-text citation appears within the body of the paper, for example (Jones, 1998) and briefly identifies the cited work by its author and date of publication. This enables readers to locate the corresponding entry in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the paper.
Each work cited must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text (or in a table, figure, footnote, or appendix).
One Work by One Author
Rogers (1994) compared reaction times . . .
In a recent study of reaction times (Rogers, 1994) . . .
One Work by Two Authors
Always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text.
Research by Burkhardt and McDonald (2010) supports....
(Burkhardt & MacDonald, 2010)
One Work by Three, Four, or Five Authors
Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (with a period after “al”).
Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen, Gerstman, and Rock (1994) found [first citation in text]
Wasserstein et al. (1994) [subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter]
One Work by Six or More Authors
Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (with a period after “al”) and the year for the first and subsequent citations.
Kosslyn et al. (1992)
Quotations in Text
Quotation less than 40 words within text:
He contended, "For the man who is extremely and dangerously hungry, no other interests exist but food" (Maslow, 1943, p.348).
Quotation of 40 or more words (indent five spaces from the left margin):
Miele (1993) found the following:
The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again [emphasis added], even when reel [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)